S-100A and S-100B proteins are two members of the S-100 family of proteins. S-100A is composed of an alpha and beta chain, whereas S-100B is composed of two beta chains. S-100 protein is reported to be expressed in neuroectodermal tissue, including nerves and melanocytes. Langerhans cells in skin and interdigitating reticulum cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes are also reported to express S-100 protein. It is noteworthy that S-100 protein is highly soluble and may be eluted from frozen tissue during immunohistochemical procedures.
S-100 is recommended for the detection of specific antigens of interest in normal and neoplastic tissues, as an adjunct to conventional histopathology using non-immunologic histochemical stains.