Human chronic lymphocytic leukemia: immunohistochemical staining for Geminin. Note intense nuclear staining of proliferating neoplastic cells. Geminin: clone EM6



Antigen Background

Geminin is a protein of 209 amino acids thought to be involved in the control of DNA replication via the interaction with Cdt1. Geminin is not found in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but is first expressed in the G1 to S transition phase, with expression levels rising through the rest of the cell cycle and levels reaching a maximum during mitosis. It has been proposed that geminin may be a tumor suppressor protein. Geminin is reported to be expressed in proliferating lymphocytes and epithelial cells, for example, germinal centers in tonsil as well as in colon, spermatocytes, seminiferous tubules of the testes, within the basal layers of the squamous epithelium of the skin and breast. Geminin is reported to be upregulated in cancers such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, B cell lymphoma, breast carcinoma and colon carcinoma.


Geminin is recommended for the detection of specific antigens of interest in normal and neoplastic tissues, as an adjunct to conventional histopathology using non-immunologic histochemical stains.

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