Thrombomodulin is a transmembrane glycoprotein of 75 kD which can accelerate the activation of protein C. Activated protein C functions as an anticoagulant by combining with protein S to inactivate factors Va and VIIIa of the blood coagulation pathway and by binding thrombin. Several factors regulate thrombomodulin expression. Downregulation of thrombomodulin may be induced by the cytokine interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin. Agents which increase cyclic AMP such as forskolin may upregulate thrombomodulin activity in endothelial cells. Thrombomodulin has been identified within a number of normal tissues. These include the lining cells of arteries, veins, capillaries and the lymphatics as well as mesothelial cells, meningeal lining cells, synovial cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, megakaryocytes and platelets.
CD141 (Thrombomodulin) is recommended for the detection of specific antigens of interest in normal and neoplastic tissues, as an adjunct to conventional histopathology using non-immunologic histochemical stains.