Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a 36 kD protein which is highly conserved between species. PCNA functions as a co-factor for DNA polymerase delta in S phase and also during DNA synthesis associated with DNA damage repair mechanisms. The PCNA molecule has a half-life in excess of 20 hours, and therefore, may be detected in non-cycling cells eg those in G0 phase.
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Heat induced epitope retrieval using 10mM citrate buffer (pH6.0) may improve staining on overfixed tissues, but due to increased sensitivity using this technique, care must be taken with the interpretation of results. Staining is reduced (and may be abolished) if sections are baked onto glass slides. Air drying overnight onto 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (Apes) coated slides may produce improved results.